A sensor node in an IoT system collects data from one or more sensors and transmits it to the gateway via a short-range wireless communication protocol like Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), Wi-Fi or Zigbee.  

The terminal devices communicate with one or more gateways under the protocol of media access control. Terminal devices transmit their data to one of the other gateways and the gateways send a message to the network server. The gateways connect to the network servers via a standard IP connection, and the terminal devices use wireless single-hop communication to one or more gateways.   

A LORA gateway is connected via standard IP protocol to the Internet and transmits data received from the Lora sensor over the Internet to the network. A gateway receives data from an end node (sensor) and receives a Lora data packet (LORA data packet) via Internet Protocol (IP) from a network server. As soon as the gateway receives and interprets the data packet using Lora technology, it forwards the packet to another network server via a standard IP connection.  

LORA is a WAN-based device module that communicates with a central location called a gateway. The Lorawan gateways communicate with each node to receive data. The node that sends the signal to the node and the node that manages the LORA. The gateways receive LORA’s modulated RF messages from the terminal devices and hear the distance between messages from Lorawan Network Servers (LNs) connected to the IP backbone.   

Communication between sensor nodes and base stations takes place via wireless channels that use the physical layer of LORAs, while the connection between the gateway and network servers takes place via the backbone of the IP-based network.   

LORA gateways, such as those listed above, are physical devices (internal hardware and firmware) used to connect IoT platforms to the cloud and form the backbone of a functioning Lovak IoT network. The terminal devices are connected to the Lorawan network via gateways using LORA RF modulation. The Lorawan enables terminal devices (sensors and actuators) to connect to the network via radio gateways using LORAs radio modulation.   

While the basic function of Lorawan gateways is to demodulate LORA packets at the end node and transmit them to the server, there are some key elements to be considered when working with Lorawan gateways and Lorawan networks in general.   

Lorawan is responsible for managing the frequency, data rate and performance of the device. Lorawan defines the protocol of communication and system architecture of the network, and the LORA Alliance is the physical level that enables remote communications. It defines the communication protocol, the system architecture, and the network and LORAs architecture that enable remote communications.   

The communication protocol and the network system architecture determine the battery life of the nodes, network capacity, service quality, security and other applications that serve the network together.    

One area in which Lorawan differs from other network specifications is the use of a STAR architecture in which the central node and other nodes are connected to a gateway that acts as a transparent bridge to transmit messages between the terminal devices and the central network server in the backend. Lorawan network uses a forward-looking protocol so that terminals do not have to communicate with specific gateways.   

LORA is considered a proprietary derivative of CSS that enables IoT platform operators to swap data rates for greater reach and performance while optimizing their network performance based on their needs. While LORA defines the physical level for data transmission, various solutions for linking the network layers have been developed. In summary, it should be understood that Lora is a type of hardware that supports remote wireless communication, and Lorawan refers to a network protocol based on Lora.    

LORA is a cloud-based Media Access Control (MAC) layer protocol that acts as a network layer protocol to manage communication between LPWAN gateways, end nodes and devices via a routing protocol maintained by the LORA Alliance. Using the MAC protocol, the Low-Range and Wide-Area Network (LORawan) of LORA is an open standard defined by the Alliance, taking into account the energy-efficient nature of the protocol and the fact that many devices for power supply depend on it.   

LORA is a point-to-multipoint network protocol using the Semtech Lora modulation scheme. It does not contain radio waves, but these radio waves communicate with the LORA gateways for things like encryption and identification.   

Network servers implement Lorawan Link, a network layer protocol that includes the de-duplication of uplink messages from terminal devices received from more than one gateway and enables gateway nodes to easily transform over the air packets into IP-based messages.   

The LORA Alliance describes Lorawan as a low power wide area network protocol that connects battery-powered things to the Internet in the regional area. National and global networks targeting key internet requirements such as bidirectional communications, end-to-end security, mobility and localization services. Lorawan is designed to allow low-power devices to communicate with Internet-connected applications via a remote wireless connection. It is a Low-Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) protocol optimized for use in mobile and stationary battery-powered devices.